In addition to its emphasis on the primacy of change and dynamics rather than static snapshots, this book looks critically at development studies and policies. Originally prepared as the tenth-anniversary volume of the UNDP's series of Arab Human Development Reports, Arab Human Development in the Twenty-first Century inventories existing knowledge to present an integrated and coherent report through the systematic application of its political-economy framework. It places empowerment at the center of human development in the Arab world, away from the dominant existing “securocracy” state. Empowerment is viewed not only from the vantage point of a more equitable distribution of economic resources but also of fundamental legal, educational, and political reform to promote state-society partnership. The book's ten chapters look back at what Arab countries have achieved since the early 2000s and forward to what remains to be done to reach equitable development. Supported by a wealth of statistical material, they cover the rule of law, the evolution of media, the persistence of corruption, the draining of resources through conflict mismanagement, the dominance and increase of poverty, the environment and its daily impact, and religious education and identity. The concluding chapter attempts a critical inventory of the world literature and different experiences of democratic transition to explore where the region could be heading. This critical and timely study is indispensable reading for Middle East scholars and students alike, as well as for anyone with an interest in the future trajectory of development analyses and policies in the global south.